VIÊM DA CƠ ĐỊA

DANH MỤC CHIA SẼ
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DẠNG BỆNH DỊ ỨNG BIỂU HIỆN Ở DA

Viêm da cơ địa (Eczema, Chàm) là một bệnh Da liễu, biểu hiện chủ yếu là ngứa và mẫn đỏ gồ lên bề mặt da.

Đây là bệnh không lây, không biến chứng, nhưng gây ngứa, tạo mảng da sẩn đỏ xù xì. Thường gặp ở trẻ nhỏ và có thể kèm theo các bệnh liên quan dị ứng khác.

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Yếu tố môi trường là động lực gây bệnh: các dị nguyên có trong bụi nhà, lông vật nuôi trong nhà, quần áo, đồ dùng gia đình…

Yếu tố cơ địa di truyền là chính: khoảng 60% người lớn nếu có bệnh viêm da cơ địa thì con sẽ bị bệnh này, nếu cả bố và mẹ cùng có bị bệnh này thì con sinh ra có đến 80% mắc bệnh.

Bệnh viêm da cơ địa có các biểu hiện khác nhau tuỳ theo lứa tuổi.

  - Viêm da cơ địa ở trẻ nhũ nhi: khoảng 3 tuần sau sinh, nổi các đám da đỏ, ngứa, sau đó nổi mụn nước nhỏ li ti, dễ vỡ, xuất tiết và đóng vảy, có thể bội nhiễm. Hay gặp nhất là 2 má, da đầu, trán, cổ, thân mình, mặt dưới tay chân. Khi trẻ biết bò có thể xuất hiện ở đầu gối. Bệnh hay tái phát, nhất là lúc mọc răng, tiêm chủng, thay đổi khí hậu hay môi trường sống.

  - Viêm da cơ địa ở trẻ em: xảy ra khi giai đoạn nhũ nhi trẻ đã từng có bị viêm da cơ địa. Biểu hiện là các sẩn đỏ, vết trợt, da dày hơn, mụn nước khu trú hay lan toả. Hay gặp ở khoeo, nếp gấp khuỷu tay, mi mắt, hai bên cổ, cẳng tay, cổ. Nếu tổn thương trên 50% diện tích da, trẻ sẽ bị suy dinh dưỡng.

  - Viêm da cơ địa ở thanh thiếu niên và người lớn: biểu hiện là sẩn đỏ dẹt, có vùng da mỏng trên mảng da dày, ngứa. Hay gặp ở nếp gấp khuỷu, khoeo, cổ, rốn, vùng da quanh mắt. Khi bệnh lan toả thì nhiều nhất là các nếp gấp. Viêm da lòng bàn tay, chân, là dấu hiệu đầu tiên của viêm da cơ địa ở người lớn. Bệnh có thể tiến triển thành mạn tính, tái phát từng đợt.

Tiến triển của bệnh viêm da cơ địa

  - Khoảng 70% trẻ bị viêm da cơ địa sẽ khỏi khi lớn lên, còn lại 30% kéo dài dai dẳng.

  - Khoảng 30-50% người bệnh viêm da cơ địa sẽ xuất hiện thêm các bệnh dị ứng khác như viêm mũi dị ứng, hen phế quản.

Phòng bệnh viêm da cơ địa

  - Tránh các yếu tố kích ứng gây khởi phát: giữ phòng ngủ thoáng mát, tránh để trẻ tiếp xúc vật nuôi, len, bụi nhà. Nên cho trẻ mặc đồ thoáng mát.

  - Tắm trẻ bằng nước ấm, ngay sau khi tắm xong bôi thuốc làm ẩm da. Loại xà bông nếu bị kích ứng phải đổi chọn loại khác.

  - Vệ sinh vùng da có tã lót tránh chất tiết gây kích thích.

  - Nếu biết loại thức ăn nào gây kích ứng rõ ràng thì kiêng hẳn loại đó.

Khi trẻ có biểu hiện các dấu hiệu bất thường ở da, hãy đưa trẻ đến phòng khám Da Liễu bệnh viện Sản Nhi An giang để được điều trị và hướng dẫn cụ thể phòng ngừa bệnh tái phát.

Bs.CKI. Đào Thị Tú Trinh ( tổng hợp)

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