Người dịch: Huỳnh Như


Thuốc gì cần dùng khi bị tiền sản giật?

Nếu bạn bị tiền sản giật khi kết thúc thai kỳ và không nặng, bạn có thể không cần dùng thuốc. Đối với hầu hết phụ nữ, tiền sản giật tự biến mất sau khi sinh.

Tuy nhiên, ngay cả trong và sau khi chuyển dạ, bác sĩ của bạn sẽ theo dõi các dấu hiệu cho thấy tiền sản giật của bạn đang trở nên nặng hơn. Nếu điều đó xảy ra, bạn có thể cần điều trị bằng một trong ba loại thuốc chính được sử dụng để điều trị chứng tiền sản giật nặng:

  • Thuốc điều trị tăng huyết áp để giúp hạ huyết áp.

  • Magnesium sulfat để ngăn ngừa co giật (sản giật).

  • Steroid giúp phổi của bé phát triển nếu bé sinh trước 34 tuần.

Nếu huyết áp của bạn ở dưới mức 160/110mmHg, có thể bạn sẽ không cần dùng thuốc huyết áp. Nhưng nếu huyết áp của bạn đạt đến mức này hoặc cao hơn, bạn sẽ được cấp thuốc để kiểm soát huyết áp trở lại.

Tăng huyết áp không kiểm soát có thể dẫn đến đột quỵ hoặc các vấn đề nghiêm trọng với tim và thận của bạn. Nó cũng có thể làm giảm lượng máu cung cấp cho em bé của bạn (có khả năng bạn sẽ được nhập viện).

Ba loại thuốc thường được sử dụng để điều trị tăng huyết áp trong thai kỳ:

  • Hydralazine

  • Labetalol

  • Nifedipine

Nếu huyết áp của bạn rất cao, có thể bạn sẽ được tiêm tĩnh mạch, mặc dù nifedipin cũng có thể được dùng dạng viên uống. Những loại thuốc này có thể gây ra các tác dụng phụ, bao gồm nhức đầu (có thể nặng) hoặc buồn nôn.

Tất cả các loại thuốc để kiểm soát huyết áp đi qua nhau thai. Điều này có nghĩa là thuốc bạn dùng cũng sẽ tiếp cận với em bé của bạn. Nhưng những loại thuốc này chưa được chứng minh là gây dị tật bẩm sinh và được coi là an toàn để uống.

Bạn sẽ được theo dõi cẩn thận để đảm bảo huyết áp của bạn không trở nên quá thấp, mà cũng có thể làm giảm lưu lượng máu đến nhau thai và em bé của bạn.

Có cần steroid cho tiền sản giật không?

Nếu bạn bị tiền sản giật nặng hoặc Hội chứng HELLP trước khi kết thúc thai kỳ, con của bạn sẽ cần phải được sinh sớm. Nếu điều này xảy ra trước khi bạn mang thai 34 tuần, bác sĩ của bạn sẽ khuyên bạn nên dùng Corticosteroids (steroid), trong đó bao gồm hai mũi tiêm cách nhau 24 giờ.

Steroid được chứng minh làm giảm đáng kể nguy cơ bé bị các biến chứng nghiêm trọng, chẳng hạn như hội chứng suy hô hấp và chảy máu não. Chúng cũng có một hồ sơ về an toàn thuốc tốt.

Cần thuốc gì cho sản giật?

Nếu không điều trị, tiền sản giật có thể dẫn đến co giật (sản giật), một biến chứng cực kỳ nghiêm trọng thậm chí có thể gây tử vong. Nếu bạn bị tiền sản giật nặng, bạn sẽ được cho dùng Magnesium sulfat để ngăn ngừa những cơn co giật này. Nó cũng có thể được dùng cho những đứa trẻ sinh non để chống bại não.

Khoảng 25% phụ nữ có tác dụng phụ từ magnesium sulfate. Cảm giác rất nóng hoặc đỏ bừng là tác dụng phụ thường gặp nhất, cũng có thể có:

  • Các vấn đề về hô hấp

  • Khô miệng

  • Mệt mỏi

  • Chóng mặt

  • Sự lú lẫn

  • Đau đầu

  • Nhìn đôi

  • Nói lắp

  • Buồn nôn và ói mửa

Nếu bạn lo lắng về tác dụng phụ của magnesium sulfate, hãy tham khảo ý kiến bác sĩ của bạn về cách để kiểm soát chúng, hoặc tham khảo những lời khuyên từ những người phụ nữ khác, những người đã từng dùng nó.



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