TĂNG CƯỜNG CÁC BIỆN PHÁP PHÒNG CHỐNG DỊCH BỆNH SỞI

DANH MỤC CHIA SẼ
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  Theo thông tin từ Bộ Y tế cho biết trong năm 2018 và đầu năm 2019, dịch bệnh Sởi diễn biến phức tạp, gia tăng tại nhiều quốc gia, trong đó xảy ra ở một số nước đã công bố loại trừ bệnh sởi (Uraina, Đức, Nga…). Tại châu Á, dịch bệnh Sởi xảy ra ở nhiều quốc gia như Trung Quốc, Malaysia, đặc biệt Philippines (Ghi nhận 12.736 trường hợp mắc sởi, 203 người tử trong năm 2019). Tại Việt Nam, bệnh sởi bắt đầu gia tăng từ tháng 10/2018, tính đến đầu tháng 03/2019 ghi nhận 18.078 trường hợp sốt phát ban nghi sởi, trong đó có 2.924 trường hợp mắc sởi dương tính được xác định tại 56 tỉnh, thành phố. Hiện tại, dịch bệnh vẫn chưa có xu hướng giảm.

  Thực hiện Chỉ thị số 05/CT-BYT ngày 07 tháng 3 năm 2019 của Bộ Y tế về việc tăng cường các biện pháp phòng, chống dịch bệnh Sởi, ngày 12/03/2019 Phòng Điều Dưỡng Bệnh viện Sản – Nhi An Giang đã tổ chức buổi tập huấn chuyên đề “Phòng chống dịch bệnh Sởi”. Thông qua đó các Điều Dưỡng được cập nhật kiến thức về tình hình dịch bệnh sởi hiện nay; các biện pháp kiểm soát nhiễm khuẩn tốt trong chăm sóc bệnh nhi mắc bệnh Sởi nhằm không để lây nhiễm chéo trong bệnh viện; đẩy mạnh công tác tuyên truyền, giáo dục sức khỏe cho thân nhân nuôi bệnh về đường lây truyền, cách phát hiện, chăm sóc và phòng ngừa bệnh sởi đặc biệt lợi ích và sự cần thiết của tiêm vắc xin sởi.

phong11

  Trong tình hình dịch bệnh Sởi đang bùng phát như hiện nay, không chỉ nhân viên y tế mà cả thân nhân nuôi bệnh, người dân trong cộng đồng cần phải tuân thủ tuyệt đối các biện pháp nhằm tăng cường phòng, chống lây lan dịch bệnh. Một số các giải pháp được Bộ Y tế khuyến cáo nhằm hạn chế sự lây lan và phòng bệnh Sởi như:

  - Người bệnh sởi phải được cách ly tại nhà hoặc tại cơ sở điều trị theo nguyên tắc cách ly đối với bệnh lây truyền qua đường hô hấp.

  + Sử dụng khẩu trang y tế cho người bệnh, người chăm sóc, tiếp xúc gần và nhân viên y tế.

  + Hạn chế việc tiếp xúc gần không cần thiết của nhân viên y tế và người thăm đối với người bệnh.

  + Thời gian cách ly từ lúc nghi mắc sởi cho đến ít nhất 4 ngày sau khi bắt đầu phát ban.

  - Nhân viên y tế, thân nhân nuôi bệnh, khách đến thăm cần phải tăng cường vệ sinh tay (Bằng xà phồng hoặc dung dịch rửa tay nhanh) nhất là sau khi chăm sóc trẻ mắc bệnh, tiếp xúc chất tiết mũi, họng, đồ dùng cá nhân, vật dụng xung quanh trẻ bệnh.

  - Tăng cường vệ sinh cá nhân cho trẻ, sát trùng mũi họng, giữ ấm cơ thể, nâng cao thể trạng để tăng sức đề kháng.

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  - Không cho trẻ em dùng chung vật dụng cá nhân (khăn mặt, bàn chải, kính, cốc, chén, bát, đũa …), đồ chơi hoặc đồ vật dễ bị ô nhiễm chất tiết mũi họng. Làm sạch đồ chơi, đồ vật bị nghi ngờ ô nhiễm dịch tiết mũi họng của bệnh nhân bằng xà phòng hoặc các chất tẩy rửa thông thường với nước sạch.

  - Lau sàn nhà, nắm đấm cửa, mặt bàn, ghế, khu vệ sinh chung hoặc bề mặt của đồ vật nghi ngờ bị ô nhiễm dịch tiết mũi họng của bệnh nhân bằng xà phòng hoặc các chất tẩy rửa thông thường từ 1-2 lần/ngày.

  - Thường xuyên mở cửa sổ, cửa chính để ánh nắng chiếu vào và đảm bảo thông khí thoáng cho nhà ở, phòng học, nơi làm việc, phòng điều trị hằng ngày.

  - Cho trẻ nghỉ học khi mắc bệnh. Hạn chế tập trung đông người, hội họp, đặc biệt tại những phòng chật hẹp, ít thông khí ở khu vực ổ dịch.

  - Khi có các dấu hiệu của bệnh sởi (sốt, ho, chảy nước mũi, phát ban) cần sớm cách ly và đưa trẻ đến các cơ sở y tế gần nhất để được thăm khám, tư vấn điều trị kịp thời. Không nên đưa trẻ điều trị vượt tuyến khi không cần thiết để tránh quá tải bệnh viện và lây nhiễm chéo trong bệnh viện.

  - Chủ động thực hiện tiêm chủng vắc xin, đây là biện pháp phòng bệnh đặc hiệu và tốt nhất phòng bệnh sởi: đưa trẻ từ 9-12 tháng tuổi đến cơ sở y tế để được tiêm vắc xin phòng sởi mũi 1, tiêm nhắc lại mũi 2 khi trẻ đủ 18 tháng tuổi.

(CKI. ĐD Trương Kim Thuyên)

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