CẬP NHẬT KHOA HỌC: MỘT SỐ TRẺ SINH NON TỰ SẢN XUẤT CHẤT BẢO VỆ CHỐNG LẠI CHẤN THƯƠNG NÃO

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Người dịch: Huỳnh Trần Bích Ngọc

sinhnon

Xét nghiệm protein có lợi cho điều trị ở trẻ sơ sinh

Theo một phân tích của các nhà nghiên cứu do Viện Sức khỏe Trẻ em và Phát triển Con người (NICHD) của Eunice Kennedy Shriver tài trợ, một số trẻ sinh non có thể tạo ra một loại protein để đáp ứng với tình trạng viêm nhằm tự bảo vệ chống lại chấn thương não liên quan đến trong quá trình sinh nở . Chất này được gọi là haptoglobin, có trong máu cuống rốn của trẻ sơ sinh. Các nghiên cứu trong tương lai, xác định xét nghiệm trẻ sơ sinh non tháng để tìm haptoglobin, là xét nghiệm giúp trẻ sơ sinh có được nhiều lợi ích từ các biện pháp can thiệp để ngăn ngừa chấn thương não hoặc làm giảm nguy cơ của nó.

Nghiên cứu được thực hiện bởi Catalin S. Buhimschi, MD, thuộc Đại học bang Ohio và các đồng nghiệp.

Cơ sở nghiên cứu:

Các nghiên cứu trước đây đã phát hiện ra rằng sinh non sau khi bị viêm trong tử cung, thường là do phản ứng với nhiễm trùng, làm tăng nguy cơ chấn thương não và rối loạn não, bại não ảnh hưởng đến vận động, tư thế và phản xạ. Trong các phát hiện trước đó, các tác giả của nghiên cứu hiện tại đã phát hiện ra rằng một số trẻ sinh non bắt đầu sản xuất haptoglobin sớm, một loại protein thường không được sản xuất cho đến sau 6 tháng tuổi. Haptoglobin là một chất chống oxy hóa, một phân tử ngăn ngừa tổn thương tế bào từ một số hợp chất chứa oxy.

Kết quả:

Để tiến hành nghiên cứu, các nhà nghiên cứu đã phân tích mẫu máu cuống rốn của 921 trẻ trong thử nghiệm của Antepartum Magiê (BEAM ), trong đó tìm cách xác định xem việc cung cấp magiê sulfate (muối Epsom) có lợi ích gì cho phụ nữ có nguy cơ sinh non do bại não và tử vong ở trẻ sơ sinh. Trong thử nghiệm BEAM, các kết quả được phân loại theo 2 kết quả chính: liệu trẻ sơ sinh chết khi 1 tuổi hay bị bại não sau 2 năm điều trị; hoặc khi trẻ được 2 tuổi nếu trẻ bị sinh non.

Các nhà nghiên cứu đã kiểm tra sự hiện diện của Interleukin 2, một loại hormone hệ thống miễn dịch được sản xuất để đáp ứng với tình trạng viêm. Họ đã xác định ba nhóm: trẻ sơ sinh không bị viêm, những trẻ tiếp xúc với tình trạng viêm không sản xuất haptoglobin và những trẻ tiếp xúc với tình trạng viêm nhiễm sản xuất haptoglobin. Trẻ sơ sinh bị viêm không sản xuất haptoglobin, hoặc sản xuất một lượng rất nhỏ, có khả năng bị bại não hoặc tử vong cao hơn khoảng 60% so với trẻ sơ sinh bị viêm nhiễm sản xuất haptoglobin. Tương tự như vậy, trẻ sơ sinh bị viêm nhiễm sản xuất ít hoặc không có haptoglobin có khả năng bị xuất huyết não thất (chảy máu trong não) cao hơn khoảng 70% so với trẻ sơ sinh sản xuất haptoglobin.

Trẻ sơ sinh bị viêm nhiễm sản xuất haptoglobin có tỷ lệ mắc bệnh bại não hoặc tử vong tương tự và xuất huyết não thất hoặc tử vong, so với trẻ không bị viêm nhiễm.

Ý nghĩa:

Khả năng sản xuất haptoglobin để đáp ứng với tình trạng viêm trong tử cung dường như bảo vệ trẻ sơ sinh khỏi chấn thương não và tử vong liên quan đến sinh nở. Nếu các nghiên cứu trong tương lai xác nhận rằng haptoglobin bảo vệ chống lại tổn thương thần kinh, các liệu pháp có thể được thử nghiệm để bảo vệ trẻ sơ sinh bị viêm nhiễm không sản xuất haptoglobin.

Tài liệu tham khảo:

Buhimschi, CS, PL, et al. Cord blood haptoglobin, cerebral palsy and death in infants of women at risk for preterm birth: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. EclinicalMedicine.

Nguồn: nichd.nih.gov

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